Difference Between Fixed Capital and Working Capital (6 Points)
Table of Contents
Difference Between Fixed Capital and Working Capital
Meaning of Fixed Capital:
Fixed capital is the capital that is used for buying fixed assets that are used for a longer period of time in the business. These assets are not meant for resale.
In simple words, fixed capital refers to capital invested for acquiring fixed assets. It stays in the business for a long period almost permanently.
Examples of fixed capital are – capital used for purchasing land and building, furniture, plant, and machinery, etc. Such capital is required usually at the time of the establishment of a new company. However, existing companies may also need such capital for their expansion and development, replacement of equipment, etc.
Meaning of Working Capital:
Working capital is the capital that is used to carry out day-to-day business activities. After estimating the fixed capital requirement of the business firm, it is necessary to estimate the amount of capital, that would be needed to ensure the smooth functioning of the business firm. A business firm requires funds to store adequate raw material in stock. A firm would need capital to maintain sufficient stock of finished goods.
A business firm will have to arrange capital for the following :
a) For building up inventories
b) For financing receivables
c) For covering day-to-day operating expenses.
The capital invested in these assets is referred to as ‘Working capital’. The concept of working capital is viewed differently by leading authorities. Some authorities consider working capital as equivalent to an excess of current assets over current liabilities. Gerstenbergh, defines it as, ‘‘The excess of current assets over current liabilities.’’ This approach refers to ‘Net Working Capital’. Gerstenbergh does not call it working capital. He prefers to call it ‘circulating capital’.
- Difference Between Fixed Capital and Working Capital
- Difference Between Owned Capital and Borrowed Capital
- Difference Between Debenture and Share
- Difference Between Preference Shares and Equity Shares
Difference Between Owned Capital and Borrowed Capital
|Points||Fixed Capital||Working Capital|
|1) Meaning||Fixed capital refers to any kind of physical asset i.e. fixed assets.||Working capital refers to the sum of current assets.|
|2) Nature||It stays in the business almost permanently.||Working capital is circulating capital. It keeps changing.|
|3) Purpose||It is invested in fixed assets such as land, building, equipments, etc.||Working capital is invested in short term assets such as cash, account receivable, inventory, etc.|
|4) Sources||Fixed capital funding can come|
from selling shares, debentures,
bonds, long term loans, etc.
|Working capital can be funded|
with short term loans, deposits,
trade credit, etc.
|5) Objectives of Investors||Investors invest money in fixed|
capital hoping to make future
|Investors invest money in working|
capital for getting immediate
|6) Risk||Investment in fixed capital implies|
|Investment in working capital is|