What are the 7 Ps of Marketing Mix – Scholarszilla

7 Ps of Marketing Mix

7 Ps of Marketing Mix


A systematic and comprehensive approach is necessary for successful marketing in today’s cutthroat corporate environment.

Marketing Mix is the combination of different marketing variables that the firm blends and controls to achieve the desired result from the target market.

In simple words, the marketing mix is putting the right product, at the right time, at the right price in the right place. It is one of the important tools of marketing.

The 4 Ps of marketing mix were introduced by E. Jerome McCarthy in 1960. It was further extended by Booms & Bitner in 1981 by adding 3 new elements to the 4 Ps Principle.

There are two types of marketing mix-Product Marketing Mix (4Ps) and Service Marketing mix (7Ps). The four Ps are the key factors that are involved in the marketing of goods or services.

The following are the 7 Ps of Marketing Mix:

1) Product:

Product refers to the goods or services that are offered to the customers for sale and are capable
of satisfying the need of the customer.

The product can be intangible or tangible, as it can be in the form of services or goods. The business needs to decide on the right type of product through extensive market research.

The success of the business depends on the impact of the product on the minds of the customer.

2) Price:

The price of the product is basically the amount that a customer pays for the product. Price plays an important role in creating demand for the product.

The business needs to take utmost care to decide the price of the product. The cost of the product and the willingness of the customer to pay for the product play an important role in pricing the product.

Too high price may affect the demand for the product and pricing too low may affect the profitability of the business. While deciding the prices, the value and utility of the product to its customers are to be considered.

3) Place:

The place is also known as a distribution channel. Placement or distribution is a very important part of the marketing.

Making the right product at the right price is not enough. A businessman needs to make the product available to potential customers at the right place too.

Business needs to distribute the product in a place that is accessible to potential buyers. It covers location, distribution, and ways of delivering the product to the customer. Better the chain of distribution higher the coverage of the product in the market.

4) Promotion:

Promotion is an important element of marketing as it creates brand recognition and sales. Promotion is a tool of marketing communication that helps to publicize the product to the customer.

It helps to convey product features to the potential buyer and induce them to buy it. The promotion mix includes tools such as advertising, direct marketing, sales promotion, personal selling, etc.

The combination of promotional strategies depends on budget, the message business wants to communicate, and the target market.

The above four P’s of marketing are associated with the product marketing mix. In addition to the 4Ps, when there is consumer-oriented or service marketing, there are 3 more P’s are taken into consideration namely – People, Physical Evidence, and Process.

5) People:

People inside and outside the business directly or indirectly influence the business. People comprise of all the human beings that play an active role in offering the product or service to the customer.

The people include employees who help to deliver services to the customer. The right people at right place add value to the business. For the success of the business, it is necessary to recruit right people, train them, develop their skills, and retain them.

6) Process:

Process refers to the steps involved in delivering products and services to the customer. Processes are important to deliver a quality service.

A good process helps to ensure the same standard of service to the customer as well as save time and money by increasing efficiency. The advancement of technology helps businesses in effectively monitoring of the process of the business and taking corrective action wherever necessary.

7) Physical Environment:

The physical Environment refers to the marketing environment wherein the interaction between customer and firm takes place.

Since services are intangible in nature service providers try to incorporate certain tangible elements into their offering to enhance customer experience.

In the service market, physical evidence is important to ensure that the service is successfully delivered. Through physical evidence, customers know the brand leaders in the market.

Physical evidence affects the customer’s satisfaction. It includes location, layout, interior design, packaging, branding, dress of the staff and how they act, waiting area, etc.


Businesses can create efficient marketing strategies using the full framework offered by the 7 Ps of marketing mix.

Businesses may develop a unified and customer-focused strategy that differentiates them from rivals by carefully analyzing each element—product, pricing, place, promotion, people, process, and tangible evidence.

The secret is to continually assess and modify these components in response to changes in the market and client input, ensuring that marketing initiatives continue to be pertinent and effective in promoting corporate success.

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